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a) Labor market in Romania

In 2017 the active population was 9120 thousand people, of which 8671 thousand occupied and 449 thousand unemployed. Workers (aged 15-64) accounted for 96.5% and the employment rate was 63.9%. This indicator was higher for men – 71.8%, compared to 55.8% for women and 64.8% for urban and 62.7% for rural areas.

Among young people (15-24 years old), 24.5% were employed, as opposed to 44.5% for the older demographic (55-64 years).
The employment rate for older workers (15-64 years) was 87.9% among graduates of higher
education, 67.5% for middle-aged and 42.5% for low-education. The overall unemployment rate was 4.9%, specifically 5.6% for men and 4.0% for women, 5.4% for rural areas and 4.5% for urban areas. The unemployment rate was 18.3% higher among young people (15-24 years).

Unemployment affected 5.1% of mid-level graduates, 6.8% of low-level ones, and 2.4% of those with higher education. The long-term unemployment rate (one year or more) was 2.0%, constituting 41.4% of total unemployment. Long-term unemployment was 43.6% for men and 37.5% for women, 41.5% for urban areas and 41.4% for rural areas. Young people (15-24 years) represented 11.1% of total long-term unemployment, with a 60.4% of that age range being affected.